Over the last century, efforts have been made to bring various countries together. All these efforts have been applied in enabling human beings on the earth’s surface to come together in all aspects of life. These aspects of human life include social, political and economical aspects. Integration effort has been seen to bear fruits. In the current years, the world has been visualized as being a global village, where the interactions of the people in the world, has been of equivalent to the interaction in one village or locality. Almost all parts of the world are interconnected to the rest of the world in different ways. Barriers, which initially isolated countries, have been removed. In the recent times, higher levels of integration have been achieved. Initially, countries only integrated economically. This is now outdated. Other areas of human life have also been put in the circle of integration. This is commonly referred to as globalization (Ghauri 22).
Globalization is the process by which countries, economies, and regions have been integrated in a global network. Countries’ economies, cultures, and societies have been placed in the global networks of communication, trade, transportation, and immigration. In the past, globalization primarily used focus on the part of the world involving economy. Only factors of the economy were considered as an important part of the globalization. Foreign investment and international flow of capital and trade were held high in the globalization chart. The range of globalization has been broadened to bring in other activities and areas such as sports, media, socio–culture, technology, and politics. Biological factors such as environmental and climatic changes have also been regarded highly. Various factors have played important roles in making globalization a success. Effective communication across the world has been a major contributing factor. Costs of communication have reduced drastically, leading to enhanced communication. This has been facilitated by the growth of information technology since it has enhanced the communication process. Transportation network and immigration links has also been cited to be critical in globalization (Ghauri 22).
As indicated, globalization has various effects. It has played a major role in the current development in the world. One of the main areas that globalization has affected greatly is the environment. The environment encompasses living things and non-living things on the surface of the earth. It also comprises of the non-living things that have been put in their place by activities of human beings. Globalization has affected the environment both positively and negatively. This paper will examine both positive and negative contributions of globalization to economic, social, political, and biotic environment in the world.
Globalization has caused increased consumption of different products. This has led to increased production of goods and services in order to satisfy the global market. This has increased the stress on environment, which impacts the cycles of ecology. Globalization of trade and market has also led to increased transportation of finished goods and raw materials across the world. Fuels used in transportation of these goods have increased the levels of pollution to the environment. Transportation across the world has also resulted in other environmental predicaments such as the intrusion of landscape and noise pollution. Depletion of non-renewable energy sources such as gasoline has also brought environmental concerns. Aircraft transport, which is an important part of global transportation, usually emits gases, which results in depletion of the protective ozone layer. This has caused the greenhouse effect, which has brought about negative climatic changes. Plastic, a major pollutant, is an important part of manufacturing. Plastic is commonly used for preserving and packaging goods for export and since it is a non-biodegradable, it forms a large part of environment toxic pollutants (Labadi 15).
Globalization has led to industrialization. Industrial chemicals and wastes usually find their way into the water bodies and the soil. These harmful industrial products have caused the deaths of underwater organisms. In the year 2010, a container belonging to British Petroleum Company leaked out petroleum product in the Atlantic Ocean. According to Labadi (32), this led to the death of millions of underwater organisms in a stretch of seven miles. In the soil, chemicals and industrial effluents have led to outgrowth of noxious plants and weeds (Labadi 82). These plants and weeds usually cause damage to animals and plants by interfering with their genetic composition. In the end, this will cause plants and animals to have harmful side effects upon consumption. Demand for increased production for a global market has increased demand for factors of production. The demand for land, especially, has been on the rise. This has caused natural environmental encroachment. Forests have been cleared to pave way for agricultural activities and construction of firms and industries. For instance, land in India has been reclaimed from the sea in order to plant rice for the global market (Ehlers 44)…
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Globalization isn’t a new process. It’s actually been around for thousands of years. It’s the process of interaction between people and integration among each other. This includes integration of companies, governments, nations and processes used in the trade across the world. It is a process that has effects on the entire society, environment, politics and culture, as well as the economic development of the world. This can also influence wealth, prosperity and physical well-being of people in the world. Because globalization means that people from great distances buy and sell goods from each other, it also means people have invested in other countries and their companies for centuries. It sounds like there are no negative sides to this collaboration. However, there are bad effects of globalization that might have a stronger influence on the society than the benefits of globalization.
Starting off with the one of the first of negative impacts of globalization, it increase the emissions of CO2. How exactly? The fact is, the companies and enterprises require more and more goods, which means factories burn more coal quickly, thus increasing the release of carbon dioxide into the environment. Needless to say, this has a terrible effect on the environment, causing global warming to speed up and endanger our overall existence in a couple of decades. The more goods and service countries and people require, and the more affordable prices are due to the competitive nature of companies, the higher the negative impact will be on the environment. This is not something companies usually consider as their priority, but is one of the major factors why we are faced with global warming.
Globalization also influences employment in many countries. This process has led to a transfer of jobs from develop, and highly-successful countries to those that are less developed. This means that, less developed countries, that have lower wages overall, inexpensive coal, light rules when it comes to pollution are able to create an atmosphere where other countries can’t possibly compete. Just in the US, the percentage of employed citizens has drastically dropped, especially since China joined the World Trade Organization. However, the globalization negative effects can be seen all around the world, not just in the USA. So many countries are hiring help off shore due to employees who are willing to do the same job, at lower prices, which actually influences the economy of a country in a negative way.
Another one of the negatives of globalizations that ordinary citizens can actually notice is the tax changes. With big companies that can move around to locations where the taxes are lower, citizens feel the changes in taxes the most. People can’t move from location to location, due to their jobs and personal lives. There’s also the fact that with the lack of jobs caused by globalization, communities are basically competing with each other, in the sense who will give more tax breaks to their employers. This in essence means, globalization is transferring taxes over to the ordinary citizens, away from the corporations.
It is a fact that globalization has created a very competitive environment in the entire world. Each country strives to sell as many goods and services, at the lowest price possible. The prices are important, because the lower and more affordable the prices are among competitors, the bigger the demand, because the people are always going for what’s ultimately cheaper. This has triggered the so-called currency race to the bottom. This makes every country drop the value of its currency. And this isn’t the only effect of globalization, when value is concerned. Another way companies cut down on costs and sell at the lowest price is by paying lower wages to their employees, using cheaper fuels that pollute the environment more, and essentially let more pollution into the air causing global warm to become more intense.
One of the major negative consequences of globalization revolved around independence. Or for that matter, the lack of it in certain countries. In a certain way, globalization has encouraged the dependence on certain goods and services in some countries. Certain countries may rely on import more than on the production process overall. This leads to countries stopping to produce their own goods, such as clothing and food, and import it entirely from other countries, putting their well-being into the hands of another country. So far the system has worked, but what happens when dependent countries are left without resources, because the system starts to fail. And this dependence isn’t just on food and clothing, but on technology as well. If a country doesn’t produce their own goods, they are in high risk of a crisis, if these resources potentially stop functioning.
Last but not least, globalization is a process that enables countries to collaborate with each other through integration of systems, making these countries not just possibly dependent on each other but tied together tightly, creating a chain. This chain can mean, if a country collapses due to a certain reason, it is likely to influence other countries it is connected through the system of globalization, endangering all countries it’s connected to. There have been many examples like this in history. Civilizations that started off small, grew and eventually over-utilized their resource base, after which it ended up collapsing. Although this has happened in the past, and our systems have evolved, we are still involved in a very similar situations, if not potentially more dangerous now, because of the large number of countries who are linked together through globalization.
Globalization is an inevitable process that has been around for thousands of years and has continued to develop further using all the resources possible to make trade more efficient. With all of the above mentioned negative effects of globalization, it leads us to the conclusion that if globalization had a negative impact on civilizations and countries before, causing them to collapse completely, this event is bound to happen again in the future. The question is just when.